Well, what are we waiting for?

VTrux grilleI’ve told many clients that if GM offered a Volt-like plug-in hybrid (or fully electric) pickup truck, I’d be a rich man. The rich part, of course, is in jest, but it would mean a serious uptick in plug-in vehicle adoption, in my humble opinion. Imagine a fully electric Chevy Colorado…

The dealership I work for, Classic Chevrolet, is the North Texas service center for Via Motors‘ extended range pickup truck. I’ve been waiting, since Spring of 2014, for the ability to sell one of their trucks. I’ve ridden in one. It was a full-sized Chevy Silverado, crew cab and it was wonderful. Still, I wait…VTrux

Now, several electric trucks have been announced, by various manufacturers. Here are a few:

It is obvious that there are manufacturers that want to pursue this market. For the 2018 model year, Chevy is rumored to be introducing the eAssist Silverado, a V8-powered “mild hybrid” (think Malibu Hybrid, not Volt). It is estimated to get an estimated 13% increase in fuel economy, compared to a non-hybrid Silverado.

When will this market take shape???VTrux solar

May 2017 Sales Numbers

May 2017 plug-in vehicle sales were up, for the vehicles I track, with one exception, and that exception was only very slightly down. In the three previous years, my May sales were great, qualifying me for bonuses from GM. This May, I struggled to sell only two vehicles, making this the worst first five months of the year I’ve had, since my first full year in this business, 2014. Traffic, both phone and on site, are markedly down.

The silver lining to the disaster of May 2017 was Bolt EV orders. Electric Avenue has received deposits for fifteen Bolt EVs. Two of those clients have asked me to hang onto their deposits, while they wait for better timing and one cancelled, in favor of the Volt. Then decided to not get the Volt.

The new month has started off so well, that I have already beaten last month’s crappy performance, with two Volt sales. One of the Bolt EV orders, mentioned above, occurred on the 1st of June. That particular order was interesting. The client had been to two other Chevy dealerships, looking to get an inbound Bolt EV reserved for himself. One dealership seemed completely disinterested and said they weren’t sure they were going to carry Bolt EV. One said they’d have one, that matched his criteria within six weeks (I doubt that’s possible).The client stated, from the very beginning of our discussion, “Whoever gets it in first wins.

Then he walked into Electric Avenue. We have a Bolt EV here, which is on loan to us from an owner. We cannot sell it, but we can show it off and test drive it. I checked our incoming inventory (35 Bolt EVs, including 12 ordered for clients) and did not find one that matched his criteria. After the test drive, we discussed the reasons why the one dealership said they probably would not carry Bolt EV, and I pointed out to him that not only were we going to have them in large (for Texas) quantities, but that we had designated a building specifically for EV & hybrid sales. I explained that we spent tens of thousands of dollars to make an environment for buyers of these vehicles, that is completely different than any other sales building on the premises, and was modeled after my experience working at Apple Retail. I closed with, “When it comes time to get your Bolt EV, support the dealership that is supporting you.” He immediately decided to place a deposit and order his Bolt EV from me.

Here are the May 2017 sales figures, compared to the previous month:

  • Chevy Volt: UP 1% (1,817 vs. 1,807)
  • Chevy Bolt EV: UP 21% (1,566 vs. 1,292)
  • Nissan Leaf: UP 31% (1,392 vs. 1,063)
  • Plug-in Toyota Prius: UP 5% (1,908 vs. 1,819)
  • Tesla Model S: UP 44% (1,620 vs. 1,125) **estimated
  • Tesla Model X: UP 142% (1,730 vs. 715) **estimated
  • BMW i3: DOWN 2% (506 vs. 516)
  • Ford Fusion Energi: UP 10% (1,000 vs. 905)
  • Ford C-Max Energy: UP 27% (950 vs. 749)
  • Hyundai Ioniq Electric: UP 295% (75 vs. 19) ** My figures in last month’s summary mistakenly were for all Ioniqs, not just the electric that I intended to focus on…

In May, the average price of gasoline was down 2% compared with the previous month, dropping sharply, until the 14th of the month. Then, the price rose steadily, with one sharp dip, until the end of the month, finishing at $2.38.

May 2017 Sales NumbersAs I mentioned earlier, in May I only had two sales for the month. To show exactly what kind of disaster 2017 has been for me so far, take a look at the graph below. The red bars are the months of 2017. Notice how thin they are, compared to the other colors? It has become obvious that we should not have moved into the new building (which gets very low traffic) until Bolt EVs started to arrive.Buzz's Sales By Month

My May sales were comprised of one Z06 Stingray one Silverado 1500. I did not sell a single Volt, so although the Volt continues to be my most popular vehicle, it lost ground to my 2nd- and 3rd-best selling vehicles.Buzz's Vehicle Sales By Model

Plug-in sales, compared to the same month a year ago, were up with only two exceptions, the Tesla Model S and the Ford Fusion Energi.

  • Chevy Volt: DOWN 4% (1,817 vs. 1,901)
  • Chevy Bolt EV: (was not available in May 2016)
  • Nissan Leaf: UP 42% (1,392 vs. 979)
  • Plug-in Toyota Prius: UP 47,500% (1,904 vs. 4) **previous generation Prius plug-in, dying out last May
  • Tesla Model S: UP 35% (1,620 vs. 1,200)
  • Tesla Model X: UP 8% (1,730 vs.1,600)
  • BMW i3: DOWN 27% (506 vs. 696)
  • Ford Fusion Energi: DOWN 31% (1,000 vs. 1,453)
  • Ford C-Max Energi: UP 77% (950 vs. 538)
  • Hyundai Ioniq Electric: (was not available in May 2016)

We’ll always have Paris…well, no. We won’t.

Paris vs. Big OilThe Trump administration today backed out of the Paris Climate Agreement, which had all but two countries of the entire planet as signatories. This action starts a process that will take until 2020 to complete. During his campaign, Trump had claimed that climate change was a non-issue, created by the Chinese to make American manufacturing less competitive in world markets.

Of course, today’s news comes as no surprise. Trump’s selection of the head of the EPA, Scott Pruitt, benefitted from campaign donations from the fossil fuel industry. Lobbyists, from the fossil fuel industry, drafted letters that Pruitt sent out on state stationery, when he was Oklahoma Attorney General. He sued the EPA, repeatedly to stop implementation of environmental protection rules. On the campaign trail, Trump said he wanted to get rid of the EPA and/or slash its number of employees, making it ineffective. The EPA, under Pruitt, has removed all mention of global climate change from the agency’s website.

On Trump’s first foreign trip, during his stop at the Vatican, the Pope gave Trump a copy of his encyclical on climate change, as a gift. I have to wonder if that embarrassing incident caused Trump to dig in his heels, even more, with regards to the Paris accord…

Now, it’s up to each of us, to save the planet. At the state and local level, we must push for changes to reduce carbon emissions. Local governments need vehicles. They should be looking at hybrids and EVs, where they are appropriate. Government buildings should be topped with solar panels or wind turbines.

We, as consumers, have the power to drive or accelerate change to reduce greenhouse gases. Your wallet is a powerful weapon. If you have the ability to shop for your electricity provider, select one who uses renewable energy, instead of coal or natural gas. I did this over 16 years ago, by switching to Green Mountain Energy. In the beginning, I paid a little more for this. Now, they are very competitive with other, non-renewable energy providers.

If you’re a homeowner, consider adding solar panels to your home. Generate your own, pollution-free electricity from the sun. Lately, I’ve seen companies advertise that they are building solar farms and will provide electricity at a flat, monthly rate to those who cannot put solar panels on their residence (apartment dwellers, those who don’t have good southern exposure, renters, etc.).

When you’re out shopping, select vendors who are making changes to be environmentally responsible. If they have chargers for electric vehicles, hybrid delivery vehicles, solar panels on the business, frequent their establishment and make sure the manager/owner knows that their behavior is what made you their customer.

Recycle as much of your trash as possible. The more we can recycle materials, rather than make them from scratch, the less pollution we generate and the less room we’ll take up in landfills.

Drive a vehicle that is appropriate. If your daily commute is you, alone in a vehicle, do you really need that large SUV? Wouldn’t a hybrid, electric or hydrogen fuel cell vehicle work? There are tax incentives (for now, at least). Take advantage of them! Ask your friends, who have these cars, what the pros and cons are. If you have a large family, that requires a large vehicle, use that room to carpool, reducing the number of vehicles on the road. Take mass transit, if possible. Is this convenient? Maybe not. Suffering from lung disease isn’t either.

Most importantly, make sure your elected officials know that environmental stewardship is important to you. Call, write, email them. Let them know this is a primary way you’ll determine who you’ll vote for, and then VOTE! There are many hot-button issues that the politicians use to keep us divided. The pro-life/women’s rights argument has swayed many an election. Ask yourself, “How many babies will struggle to breathe, if we abandon effective environmental stewardship?” One of my daughters struggled every time there was an ozone alert in our area. It sounded like she had whooping cough. It was agonizing for us. “How many babies will starve to death, if we create a new dust bowl?” If you are really concerned about the fate of the unborn, this should be an important issue for you, as well.

Nothing can change a politician’s actions quite as quickly as the threat of impending unemployment. Organize and push for term limits for Congress. Most elected officials today have one, most important issue, with which they’re concerned. It’s keeping that cushy job, in Washington. It takes a lot of money to get elected. They can spend all their time trying to get small, individual donations, or they can have a few dinners for their wealthy contributors and rake in the cash. Then they have become a minion of these donors. Someone like Bernie Sanders only comes around rarely. Most politicians take the easy way out and sell their influence for campaign donations.

But, you already knew this.

Start to act on it.

This behavior only exists because we allow it to exist. We are part of the problem. Instead of complaining about our elected officials’ corruption and short-sightedness, look in the mirror. Change starts with you.

Memorial Day in the car biz

Memorial Day Ad with Bolt EVMany of you like to get your new vehicle, during a holiday. You have plenty of time to shop and bringing a new car home is a great way to celebrate. In the car sales business, most dealers are open their usual hours and all hands are on deck, anticipating crowds. This is true of Classic Chevrolet, as well.

One thing is different in our ad, this weekend: The Chevrolet Bolt EV is featured in the ad’s banner! We began officially taking orders and have fifteen on order now. Eight of those already have deposits on them, as they were custom-ordered for clients. Based on normal order turn-around, I am hopeful our Bolt EV orders will arrive before the 4th of July.

If you’re in the DFW area, come on by and visit the “EVangelists” of Electric Avenue.2 Bolts at EA

P.S. An owner dropped the Bolt EV here so people can check it out and test drive it, before they’ll be common, in Texas!

A wonderful day for me and my family

Zoe & Bon at graduationThis post is only tangentially related to plug-in vehicles, as a view of the video will show.

Today was a wonderful day for me and my family. I worked, in the morning, and helped a client order his 2017 Chevy Bolt EV. As soon as I wrapped that up, I sped home to meet the family for a trip to downtown Fort Worth, Texas. The reason? To watch my youngest daughter Zoe graduate from high school!Zoe IB Done

It was an afternoon filled with pride and tears, as we steel ourselves for her departure to college, at Texas Tech University, in Lubbock Texas (303 miles away). She will study computer engineering.

Think EVs aren’t for the performance-oriented buyer?

Pon & BuzzThis really happened today:

Pon, is a very cool client of mine. He bought a Z06 Corvette from me and recently drove a Bolt EV and LOVED it! He has multiple performance cars, including a Mercedes Benz, 1979 and 1981 Trans Ams and used to have a Lamborghini. He said the Bolt will be the next addition to his flock! He loved the acceleration, one pedal driving, quietness and cornering.

For the uninitiated, a Z06 Corvette Stingray (7th generation, or “C7” as it is known among the Corvette aficionados) has 650 horsepower and 650 pound-feet of torque. It is truly a beast.

Pon was visiting the dealership for an oil change and stopped by my old desk, in the main showroom. Seeing another salesperson there, he called my mobile number, to ask where I was. I told him about Electric Avenue, so he stopped by to visit, as he waited for his Stingray’s service to be completed.

We were chatting about my move and what Electric Avenue is all about, when a Bolt EV pulled up. The driver, who I know well, through us the keys and we took it for a spin.

The rest, as they say, is history.

…or prehistory, since he hasn’t bought the Bolt EV yet.

Chevy Bolt EV & Tesla Model 3 EV range: useful or bragging rights?

I’ve been test driving a couple of the very few Bolt EVs I can locate, in my area of Texas.

Why so few, you ask? I’ll digress for a moment…

GM decided to do a phased rollout of the Bolt EV, beginning with California and Oregon and keeping its availability (mostly) limited to states that offer Zero Emission Vehicle credits through the first six months of availability (December 2016 – May 2017). Exceptions to this perceived pattern were:

  • Virginia, in the 3rd month (proximity to Washington DC, perhaps?)
  • Washington, in the 5th month (strong EV market, or just filling in the West coast?)
  • New Hampshire, in the 6th month (Filling in the gap between Maine, Vermont & Massachusetts?)
  • Colorado, in the 6th month as well (What were they smoking when they decided this?!?)

Although the rollout schedule didn’t make me very happy, my being in Texas (9th month Bolt EV availability), I understand the business decision. If GM wants to sell very profitable, big SUVs, trucks and sports cars, in the states governed by the California Air Resources Board rules (also known as CARB states), these credits make that possible.

Manufacturers, like GM, have to produce and sell a certain percentage of zero emission vehicles, out of their overall vehicle sales, in those states. This percentage changes over time, peaking at 22% of vehicle sales in 2025. This makes the credits quite valuable and has been derided by Elon Musk of Tesla Motors, as it gives an economic advantage to manufacturers that produce both ZEVs and gasoline-fueled vehicles. Think about it: Tesla does not make vehicles that run on fossil fuels. ZEV credits would seem worthless to Tesla, except for the fact that there is a market for ZEV credits. Tesla can sell their ZEV credits to other manufacturers, whose percentage of ZEV-to-internal-combustion-vehicle sales does not meet the CARB requirement. Mr. Musk’s issue is that, according to him, Tesla is only able to garner about half of the dollar value the credits have, for traditional vehicle manufacturers, giving those other manufacturers a competitive advantage.

Anyway, I was not happy about Texas’ position in the rollout schedule.

This month we got the great news that the ability to place orders for Bolt EV had moved up one month and I fervently hope deliveries will also commence a month earlier than originally planned. If so, I could be selling Bolt EVs as early as the 4th of July.

Think about the advertising possibilities: “Celebrate Gasoline Independence Day Sale!” Now back to our original programming…

Some people have gone to states, where Bolt EV is available, bought one and had it shipped home. I know of three, in my area of Texas. There are very few, because GM has threatened dealers with lawsuits, if they sell outside their defined territories. (There have been stories of Bolt EV being sold into other countries, not just other states.) This caused the well to dry up and kept the Bolt EV a rarity, in my neck of the woods. Fortunately for me, I have friends in EV places and have had some Bolt EV road time and thoroughly enjoyed it. Although the Bolt EVs exterior styling is not my cup of tea (I plan to keep driving my Volt), my wife loves it and is ready to give her 2015 Volt to our daughter, Zoe. We’d then trade Zoe’s 2014 Volt in, on a new Bolt EV purchase or lease.

That being said, the Bolt EV is a hoot to drive! I have witnessed the wheels break traction at 40 miles per hour! The roominess of the interior, which is mentioned in every review I’ve read, is impressive. Some of the Bolt EV drivers I know are over six feet tall and still have oodles of headroom in both the front and rear seating positions. The rearview mirror’s monitor display, reverse and forward parking cameras and the wrap-around camera (like you’re observing from a drone above your Bolt EV) are amazing. I hope those features make it to the Volt…

However, I’ve been thinking about the battery pack and the Bolt EV’s impressive range of 238 miles per charge. While it is great for bragging rights, as it was the first EV to have range like that, for under $70K…WELL below $70K, is that much range really necessary? (Bolt EV starts at $37,495 or $29,995 after the $7,500 Federal Income Tax Credit.)

How often do you drive more than 100 miles, in a single day?

GM representatives have stated that battery costs are down to around $145 per kwh (for GM) and are still falling. For a 2nd generation Volt, that’s $2,668 but the Bolt EV’s 60 kwh battery that’s $8,700!

Don’t get me wrong. I am proud GM was able to do this. It is impressive and the Bolt EV is an impressive vehicle, but let’s think about the use case for the BoltEV:

  • It has a range of 238 miles per charge.
  • With optional CCS fast charging, you can add 90 miles of range in 1/2 hour or fill the battery in 2-1/2 hours.
  • Although not very common today, CCS fast charging is being deployed along major highways and in major metropolitan areas.

DFW to EstesParkLet’s take a trip from where I live, Fort Worth, Texas, to one of my favorite places, Estes Park, Colorado. The distance is 834 miles, most of it being freeway driving or mountainous terrain (after Boulder). We probably wouldn’t get 238 miles per charge, due to high speed and/or terrain, so let’s estimate 200 miles per charge. Here’s how that looks:

  • Start out at 8:00AM, with a full charge at home.
  • Drive 200 miles @ 60 MPH, to Quanah, Texas (3 hours, 20 minutes – arrive 11:20AM)
  • Charge 2-1/2 hours, grab lunch, walk around the area (if not just at a roadside rest area)…um…read for a while… Depart 1:50PM.
  • Drive another 200 miles to Dumas, Texas (3 hours, 20 minutes – arrive 5:10PM)
  • Charge 2-1/2 hours…Watch a movie in the car. Grab dinner, toward the end of the charge. Depart 7:40PM
  • Drive another 200 miles to Trinidad, Colorado, passing through Raton, New Mexico (3 hours, 20 minutes – arrive 11:00PM)
  • That’s 15 hours, so let’s stop for the night, I’m beat!
  • Hopefully I booked a hotel with a level 2 charger (at least). Charge overnight for 9-1/2 hours* (more on this later) Depart, after breakfast, at 9:00AM
  • Drive 200 miles to Denver, Colorado (3 hours, 20 minutes – arrive 12:30PM)
  • Charge 2-1/2 hours. Have lunch. Depart 3:00PM.
  • Drive 70 miles to Estes Park, Colorado (1-1/2 hours of twisting, sometimes steep, mountain roads – arrive 4:30PM)

That’s 22-1/2 hours of driving & charging (not counting the charge/stay at the hotel). Of course, that depends on several factors, including finding CCS fast chargers, that are not already charging other EVs, in Quanah, Texas (population 3,000), Dumas, Texas (population 14,691) and Denver, Colorado (should be easy), as well as finding a hotel, in Trinidad, Colorado with level 2 charging* (at a minimum).

How would this trip go, if driving my Volt?

I would save 5-1/2 hours. I’d still have to stop for lunch and dinner on the first day, although it would take no more than an hour to do so, each time. I’d also have to stop to buy gasoline, but that could be combined with some of the meal stops. Lunch on the second day would be at my destination, saving me 2-1/2 hours on that day alone. I would arrive at my hotel in Trinidad, Colorado at 8:00PM, instead of 11:00PM and in Estes Park around 2:00PM, instead of 4:30PM. More rested, with more time to enjoy Estes Park.

The difference, although substantial, is small enough that I might actually opt for the Bolt EV, to save on fuel, have peace and quiet & reduce pollution, if I had another person help with the driving. However, this may be too rosy a picture, if I have to spend even more time finding a CCS fast charger or wait for a charger to become available. Over time, as battery charge times are reduced and chargers begin to proliferate, this issue will diminish. I am sure this trip is not reasonably possible with today’s charging infrastructure. Unfortunately, as I saw in a recent presentation by the North Central Texas Council of Governments, although charging infrastructure is being planned, as can be seen here and here, the DC fast charging is mainly focused around urban centers and there are currently no plans to expand charging infrastructure along my route. In fact, the designated corridors require Texans heading West to go North and East, around Kansas to Nebraska and then turn West on I-80 to get to Colorado and further West.

That means that for the foreseeable future, the Bolt EV should not be considered a long distance vehicle. It is more than just a daily commuter, with occasional trips, since within Texas I could drive to:

  • Houston (and on to Galveston Island with a 30 minute CCS fast charge)
  • Austin (the State capitol and grooviest city in the state)
  • San Antonio (home of the Alamo and Riverwalk, with a 30-45 minute CCS fast charge, in Austin)
  • Corpus Christi, Texas (with an overnight stay, in Austin. That’s okay, as it is a long drive for just one day)
  • Shreveport, Louisiana (if very careful or with an hour-long Level 2 charge)
  • Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (if very careful or with an hour-long Level 2 charge)

Big Bend National Park, at the border with Mexico, and El Paso, Texas would become too far to reach in a reasonable time. Texas is a big state, in case you haven’t heard.

So the Bolt EV is pretty good for trips of less than 325 miles, one way, but beyond that, it becomes less appealing. This begs the question, “How often do you drive that far, in a single day?” In the 15 months I’ve had my 2017 Volt, I have gone to Austin once. Based on that, it would work for me. If it was my only vehicle, I’d have to rent a gas-powered vehicle for longer trips, take a flight instead or stay overnight somewhere along my route. There’s nothing wrong with that! Most of the time I go to Colorado, I fly. When I last drove to Corpus Christi, I stayed overnight in Austin, as I showed I’d have to do, in the Bolt EV.

Tesla Supercharger locations

Tesla Supercharger locations. Red = existing, Grey = planned.

The Tesla Model 3 is, according to the Tesla Motors’ Model 3 page, will have 215 miles of range per charge. That’s a small enough difference, when compared to Bolt EV, that the trip would be comparable to the Bolt EV trip outlined above, with this exception: Tesla has been and continues to roll out “Superchargers,” (or DC fast charging) infrastructure. General Motors has decided to leave that to 3rd parties, like ChargePoint, EVgo and others. Unfortunately, those companies appear to be focusing on large, urban areas, in order to maximize electricity sales and seem to be ignoring the areas between cities (i.e. “destination chargers”). The two maps below show ChargePoint and EVgo CCS fast charger locations. It appears that leaving the development of infrastructure to the free market will not generate what will be needed for inter-city travel, at least not yet.

There are multiple Supercharger locations, along the route from Fort Worth to Estes Park (see image above). Unlike the Model S and Model X, the Model 3 does not include free Supercharging. However, at last year’s shareholder meeting, Elon Musk announced the Model 3 would get free “long distance charging.” Although there was no clarification (Level 2 or Supercharging?) it would seem, since the “long distance charging” would not be that advantageous if it was not DC fast charging, that Model 3 owners would have access to the Supercharger network, shown in the image above.


ChargePoint locations


EVgo charger locations

Here’s my point: Most of us don’t need 238 miles of driving range. Surprise!

We don’t need the extra battery weight. We don’t need the extra battery cost. The longest regular commute any of my Chevrolet customers have is 50 miles, one way. They might be able to charge at work. Even without charging at work, a 30 kWh battery pack could suffice. At 119 miles of range (maybe more, since the Bolt EV would be lighter, with a smaller battery), even that person’s commute could easily be handled and the Bolt EV could be $4,000 cheaper, making the base model’s price $25,995 (after tax credit). For those with less than a 100 mile round trip commute, driving a Bolt EV is overkill. It’s like driving a traditional car that has a 75 gallon gas tank. You would either just be topping off the battery each day, never using the extra capacity for which you paid, or only charging one or two times a week.

Wait a minute. THAT’S THE ANSWER! Charging only once or twice a week!

One market that is difficult to penetrate with an EV, is the apartment dwellers. The Bolt EV would be a great fit for those who cannot charge at home, due to lack of charging infrastructure at their residence. Instead of daily charging, the Bolt EV would be handled like a gasoline car. You’d fill up once or twice a week. If CCS fast charging was made available at places where people would reasonably be expected to stay for at least an hour (sport venues, restaurants, movie theaters, grocery stores, shopping malls, schools and their job), the Bolt EV or Model 3 could open up a previously impossible market for EVs.

Other segments of the market that have been DYING to drive electric, but haven’t been able to yet, include young people, at the beginning of their career, who live in apartments, and retirees who live in retirement communities or assisted living facilities. The last issue to resolve for these groups is the income tax credit. It tilts the market to more affluent buyers, who have enough of a tax burden to get the full benefit of the credit. If we changed the tax credit to a point-of-sale discount, regardless of income level, demand could increase dramatically. We need to do this!

*One last thing: I mentioned hotels with chargers. When I am booking a hotel, I always ask if they have chargers for electric vehicles. If they do not, I say, “I can’t book with you because I need to plug in my EV.” If they say they have chargers, I always say, “Great! I’ve been looking for a hotel that provides a place to charge my car!” Since I drive a Volt, that’s not exactly true, however businesses may not know the draw a charger can have for new clientele. EV owners are thought to be affluent, thanks to Tesla, so we’re a market they’re dying to dominate. Please do this when you book your next hotel reservation. If you visit an establishment that has a charger for their customers’ use, please ask for a manager and thank them for it.

The more we all do this, the more useful our vehicles become and more people will feel comfortable making the jump to electric driving.